Modern Bodhisattva’s Way of Life:  Observe cultural norms, be respectful

(5.93) I should not sit alone with another’s partner
In a vehicle, on a bed, or in the same room.
I should observe and enquire about what offends people
And then avoid such actions.

Of course in and of itself, sitting alone with another’s partner is not problematic.  It all depends upon the context, the nexus of relationships and frankly the degree of attachment present in the minds of the people involved.  We basically need to be honest about the situations we find ourselves in.  Is there attachment in our mind towards the other person?  Is there attachment in their mind towards us?  If so, be careful.

In modern society, men and woman can sit alone in a wide variety of contexts and it means nothing more than two men or two women sitting in that room.  The point is we need to be cognizant of cultural norms and personal sensitivities and we should make sure our actions don’t fall outside of acceptable norms.  If our actions are likely to offend or provoke delusions in others, we should not engage in them unless we have a good overriding reason for doing so.

With that being said, there are overriding reasons for sometimes offending people’s sensitivities, namely if doing so challenges deluded prejudice.  Interracial marriage was a big deal before, now no one gives it a second thought.  Soon it will be the same will be with marriage between same-sex couples.  Rosa Parks, Martin Luther King, Ghandi and the other civil right leaders of our time all made those who clinged to their privilege as some intrinsic right quite uncomfortable – indeed they were offended – but this was the right thing to do.  We see the same thing in religious institutions, such as female priests or lay, western Spiritual Guides.  In short, it is perfectly appropriate to push against the norms of society if those norms themselves are grounded only in delusion.

(5.94) To show someone the way,
I should not point with just one finger
But respectfully use my right hand
With all the fingers extended.

Perhaps this was a thing in Shantideva’s time, nowadays I don’t think people really care.  Even now, I think we can say it does come across as bit rude when we point and less so when we use our whole hand.  But the point is this:  society has certain norms of proper and improper etiquette.  As a general rule, unless we have a good reason, we should err on the side of being too respectful and proper instead of too casual and potentially rude.

(5.95) I should not wave my arms around in an uncontrolled manner,
But communicate with slight movements
And appropriate gestures;
Otherwise, I shall lose my composure.

Of course there are many societies where it is perfectly normal for people to wave their arms around all they want – think Italy!  Most other places, not so much.

Gen-la Losang tells a funny story of one time he took a plane with Geshe-la from the UK to America.  Up until that time, Losang had only really seen Geshe-la in the UK, and in the UK, Geshe-la is always the perfect English gentlemen – calm, reserved, composed, keeping a proper distance and sipping his tea.  This is who Losang thought Geshe-la was.  When they were seen off at the airport, there were many people around, and Geshe-la acted entirely properly.  When they got off the plane in America, once again there were of course a lot of people there to greet him, and much to Losang’s surprise Geshe-la became all gregarious and went around hugging everybody like they were best friends.  This was the American Geshe-la!  There is likewise a video of Geshe-la touring the Brazilian temple, and if one thought the American Geshe-la was affectionate and vivacious, you should see the Brazilian Geshe-la!

The point, again, is we need to act in ways that are culturally acceptable and we should remain in control of our actions.  This doesn’t mean we need to be reserved and hold ourselves back, rather it means we should be mindful that our behavior makes people happy.

Modern Bodhisattva’s Way of Life:  Being mindful of your impact on the world around you

(5.91) I should keep places clean and not throw litter
But dispose of it correctly.
Moreover, I should not defile
Water or land used by others.

“Out of sight, out of mind, right?”  Well, no.  Nothing is out of mind.  Most of the inconsiderate acts of others stem from not thinking (or not caring) about the impact our actions have on the world around us.  This can take many forms, but here Shantideva focuses on the rather obvious “don’t make a mess that others have to clean up or suffer from.”

At its most basic form, this means we need to always make a point of cleaning up after ourselves.  At home, we shouldn’t leave our mess around for the simple reason that other people live with us and don’t want to have to see and/or climb over our mess.  Sometimes we just forget to clean up our mess, but then we also tend to forget to thank those who cleaned up our mess for us.  Other times we cynically leave our mess, knowing that others will come along and do the job for us.  When we are at other people’s houses, we should take our own plate to the kitchen and clean up whatever mess we might make.  If we damage the property of others, we should replace it not try childishly hide or deny our responsibility.

At work, we need to clean up our desk and our surroundings.  Nobody wants to see our mess and it erodes the professionalism of the entire office.  If we leave for another office, please clean up the food and coffee stains left on the keyboard so the next person doesn’t have to break out the sanitizer.  We should put our trash in the bin, not leave the photocopy machine or printer jammed and broken without doing what it takes to get it fixed, and of course we should keep ourselves and our clothes clean so others don’t have to smell us.

In our Dharma centers, we should make a point of cleaning the gompa, shrine and common areas.  These places don’t belong to us, they belong to all living beings.  Leaving our mess in these places creates the karma of leaving our mess in the living room of all living beings.  Some people think the most important job in the Dharma center is the Resident Teacher, Admin Director or Education Program Coordinator.  I would say it is the person who quietly cleans the toilets.  If we live in a Dharma center, we should keep our own room clean as well.  We might think it is not a public area, but our own private quarters.  Sorry, the Buddhas are our roommates and occasionally people will walk by our open door shocked at what they see within.

It goes without saying we shouldn’t be the person who throws their cigarettes or trash out their car window, or spit our gum out where someone might step on it.  If we have a dog, please use a doggie bag.  If we have young children, don’t leave poop diapers lying around on top of trash bins for all to see – no one wants to see that.  Don’t change your children on top of public tables where people eat.

At a broader level, Shantideva is encouraging us to be environmentally conscious.  All forms of pollution are us imposing the negative consequences of our choices on others.  Global warming is the inevitable result of our collective inconsideration of others.  Our industrial and consumer society that can’t accept anything warmer or colder than room temperature has a cost to it:  sea level rise, species destruction, drought, famine, environmental refugees and civil war.  Most of the developed world doesn’t see much pollution anymore, but that is only because production has shifted to China where 1.3 billion people live in an omni-present cloud of smoke, affectionately called, “living under the dome.”  Chinese children are choking on the smoke of our consumerism.  Hundreds of millions of some of the world’s most vulnerable people live on coastal areas that, if we don’t start thinking about others, will be flooded.  What do we care, not our problem, right?

In the end, it is not enough to just clean up after ourselves, we should also make a point of cleaning up after those who fail to clean up after themselves.  Yeah, they should be doing it and if our doing it will obstruct them from assuming responsibility for themselves, then, yes, we should leave their mess.  But most of the time that is not the case.  Just clean it up, even if you aren’t the one who made the mess.

(5.92) I should not eat with my mouth full,
Noisily, or with my mouth open.
I should not sit with my legs outstretched,
Nor rub my hands together meaninglessly.

I don’t think this requires any commentary.  The point is don’t act in disruptive, inconsiderate or culturally inappropriate ways.  With moral discipline, we are trying to create beauty.  Not just a beautiful mind, but behavior that others find beautiful.  A lot of our actions are still quite rough. We should try to become more graceful, elegant, noble even with our actions.  This doesn’t mean we should become uptight, but it does mean we should generally try be the most considerate person in every room we enter.


Modern Bodhisattva’s Way of Life:  How to teach Dharma

(5.89) I should teach the vast and profound Dharma with a pure intention,
Free from any wish to acquire wealth or reputation;
And I should always maintain a pure motivation of bodhichitta
And make great effort to put Dharma into practice.

The Dharma we teach is the vast and profound Dharma.  The vast path principally teaches how to strengthen the mind with which we meditate, such as developing a motivation of bodhichitta, tranquil abiding or the mind of great bliss.  The profound path principally teaches which objects of mind we should meditate on, such as the existence of past and future lives, the laws of karma, the twelve dependent-related links, and most importantly the wisdom realizing emptiness.

Our motivation for teaching should be pure, free from worldly concerns.  Pure in this context means primarily concerned with the interests of future lives.  Impure means primarily concerned with interests of this life.  It is very easy to have impure motivations for teaching, such as pride thinking we are better than our students, attachment to our own views trying to convince others to adopt them, craving praise and respect from those listening, a power rush thinking your actions are echoing in eternity.  We might be attached to our students coming back next week, or we might be trying to subtly manipulate them into doing more work for the center to fulfill our wish for the center to flourish.  Some pursue the celebrity of it all, others feel the correct place for others is bowing down at our feet.  Some quest for higher position, others struggle for acceptance.  Some are out to prove others wrong, others teach to uphold an inner fiction of being better than we are.  There is not a single delusion that cannot find its way into our motivation for teaching, and we need to be on the lookout for all of them.

The correct motivation for teaching should be bodhichitta.  Bodhichitta is the wish to become a Buddha for the benefit of others.  As with all things, Shantideva points the way.  At the beginning of his Guide, he stated his motivation for writing it was to clarify his own thinking and to familiarize his own mind with the Dharma, and if others receive benefit as well, all the better.  We should adopt a similar attitude while teaching.  We do not presume to think we are anybody special, nor that what we are explaining is definitive or correct.  When we have to put something into writing, we are forced to clarify our thoughts.  The same is true when we prepare a teaching.  Every teacher of any subject agrees, they only really start to understand the subject matter once they begin to teach it.  We consolidate our own thinking on the subject and then we share our understanding in the hopes it might be helpful to others.  We try give the best teachings we can because we want to create the causes to receive qualified teachings ourselves in future lives.  We know ultimately that we are responsible for all the people in the room, but we are keenly aware we are vastly unprepared for the task, so we view all things through the long-term perspective of becoming a Buddha so that then we might be of some assistance.  We are grateful to our students for showing up and giving us the opportunity to share what we have learned, but we have no expectation or need whatsoever that those listening take on board what we have to say.  We set out the best buffet of Dharma we can, but we leave others free to take or leave whatever they wish.

Above all, we should make effort to put the Dharma into practice.  Kadam Lucy once told me a story where she was meeting with Geshe-la and said, “I know that my main job is to help the center and teach Dharma, but …” she was leading up to asking him about doing retreat; and he then interrupted to say “No, your main job is to practice Dharma.  Everything else flows naturally from this.”  Geshe-la explains in Great Treasury of Merit that it is the personal experience of the teacher that make the teachings powerful for the students.  When somebody is speaking from personal experience, it naturally moves the minds of the listeners far more than if the person if speaking purely from intellectual understanding – even if the exact same words are used.  The inner explanation of this is lineage blessings only flow through personal experience, the outer explanation for this is people are not stupid – they can tell if somebody knows what they are talking about.

(5.90) I should explain Dharma to release those who are listening
From samsara, the cycle of suffering,
And to lead them to the ultimate goal –
The attainment of full enlightenment.

This is our main intention in teaching Dharma – to lead others out of samsara.  So we need a lot of skill in introducing them and leading them to nirvana. Dharma must be presented in a way that the people of our area will find appealing. They need to be able to connect with it.  We need great confidence in the Dharma as it is presented by Geshe-la, but also we need confidence in presenting that Dharma ourselves.  Geshe-la is empowering us to do this.  He receives a lot of criticism from other traditions for putting inexperienced people on the throne and giving them license to teach.  But such criticism misses the point entirely – modern people learn by doing.  We are not pretending to be great yogis, just simple practitioners bumbling along like everyone else, sharing our experience in the hopes others might learn from our mistakes.  Geshe-la says it is very important we have teachers from many different backgrounds so that we can appropriately present the Dharma to many different types of people.  Asking us fools to teach Dharma is one of Geshe-la’s great deeds. One of the most beneficial actions he has performed in this world.

Modern Bodhisattva’s Way of Life:  How to listen to Dharma

(5.88) I should listen to Dharma
With respect and a good heart,
Recognizing it as the supreme medicine
For curing the pains of anger and attachment.

The best way of helping others is by teaching them Dharma. The best teacher is the best listener.  Knowing how to listen to the Dharma not only helps us gain the most from the teachings we attend, but it also creates the causes for our students to listen correctly to us, thereby making our teachings more beneficial.

Listening to Dharma is different than listening to music on our iPod.  Reading Dharma is different than reading the newspaper.  From our side, we need to create certain causes and conditions within our mind to be able to receive the teachings in a way that moves our mind the most.  Listening with a mind of faith is clearly different than listening with a skeptical mind.  If we listen correctly, even if our teacher is teaching to a vast audience of thousands, it will feel as if the teaching was personalized just for us.

First we should have a mind of respect for the teacher.  To have respect means “we look up to” somebody with admiration and we naturally seek to “fulfill their wishes.”  At a minimum, this means we should abandon any inappropriate attention on any perceived faults.  Sometimes we have had a bad experience with our teacher in the past, and subsequently we receive no benefit from their teachings because all we can see is their past mistake.  Our teachers don’t have to be perfect to give us useful teachings.  We can realize our teacher has many good qualities and their giving Dharma teachings is coming from a good place in their heart.  When we respect somebody, we naturally seek to fulfill their wishes.  What does our teacher wish for us?  That we learn how to be happy all of the time, and then help others do the same.  A good teacher has no wish other than this.  To help cultivate our respect, we should imagine that the living Lama Tsongkhapa enters into the heart of our teacher, and through the conduit of our teacher gives the teachings.  We may not have full respect for our teacher, but there is no reason why we can’t have full respect for Lama Tsongkhapa.

To listen with a good heart means our motivation for receiving the teaching is spiritual.  People attend Dharma teachings for all sorts of strange reasons, but if we want to get the most out of them we should strive to cultivate a spiritual motivation.  At a minimum, we can recall that we have two types of problems, outer and inner.  Dharma teachings can’t explain to us how to solve our outer problems, our normal studies in school and life teach us that; rather Dharma teachings explain to us how to resolve our inner problem of delusions and negative karma.  If we are confused about the distinction between these two types of problems, thinking our inner problem is our outer problem, then Dharma teachings will seem to have little value.  But if are clear on this distinction, we will grasp their purpose.  Ideally, we should have a “pure” motivation.  A pure motivation is one that transcends the concerns of this life alone.  This life is short and its duration is uncertain, but our future lives are long and their duration is endless.  The real purpose of Dharma is to provide us protection in all our future lives – protection from falling into the lower realms, protection from another rebirth in samsara and protection from becoming stuck in solitary peace and not pushing through to full enlightenment.  A sincere and sustained practice of Lamrim will help us improve our motivation, making it increasingly spiritual and increasingly pure.

Finally, we should regard the Dharma teaching as personal advice for curing our inner sickness of delusions.  If we are not aware we have cancer, explanations of cancer treatments are of little interest.  But when we realize our life depends on the explanations because we do have cancer, we listen with a clear intention to put into practice whatever is explained.  When we come to a Dharma teaching, we should “bring our problem with us.”  On any given day, something is bothering us one way or another.  We should bring that problem, no matter how big nor how small, to the teaching, and view the teaching as exactly the personal instructions we need for overcoming this particular problem.

How can it be that our teacher can be giving instructions to many yet it still be personal advice?  The answer is blessings.  When we have respect, a good motivation and view the instructions as personal advice for the sickness within our mind, we will receive special blessings that enable us to understand the teachings we are receiving as they relate to our inner problem.  If others are doing the same with respect to their inner problems, they too will receive their special blessings and the teachings will likewise be personal advice for them – just in a different way.  Ultimately, we have no problems other than the ones our delusions mentally create for us.  All Dharma functions to oppose delusions, and every instruction of Dharma understood correctly has the power to oppose any delusion.

Modern Bodhisattva’s Way of Life:  Giving away our body

(5.86) Because I use this body to practise bodhichitta,
I should not harm it for the sake of temporary benefits,
But care for it so that I may fulfil my bodhichitta wish,
So that eventually all living beings’ wishes will be fulfilled.

We are taught that we need to give away everything, including our body.  This does not, however, mean we throw our life away.  To give away our body is an action of mind in which we cease to impute “mine” on our body, and instead we impute “others’.”  We still retain control of our body, but no longer ownership of it.  In truth, we have never owned our body, it has always belonged to our parents.  It is only our selfish ignorance that imputes “mine” onto it.

There are three main reasons why we should give away our body.  First, if we no longer grasp at our body as our own, we will no longer suffer on account of it.  When somebody else’s body gets hurt, we don’t suffer from it because we are not imputing “mine” onto their suffering.  In the same way, when our body experiences some form of pain we will no longer suffer from it because it will not be “ours.”  Second, we will naturally engage in virtue with it.  If our body belongs to others, we will naturally use it to serve their interests.  We do not steal the belongings of others and use them for our own purposes.  If we view our body as belonging to others, we will view using it for our own purposes as mismanagement of their resources at best, theft at worst.  Third, dying will not be a problem for us.  The sufferings of death are associated with the feeling of having our body ripped away from us.  But if we long ago gave away our body to others, death will not represent any great loss.  The only reason we experience human suffering is because we identify with a human body and mind.  Giving away our body to others helps break our identification with it, and thereby frees us to become who we were truly meant to be.

There is no contradiction between giving away our body and taking proper care of it.  When we borrow something from somebody else, we are far more likely to take good care of it because we know it is not ours.  If we borrow somebody’s car, we fill it up with gas before we return it.  In the same way, knowing our body belongs to all living beings, we will feel a responsibility to maintain it, keep it healthy, keep it safe and keep it alive for as long as possible.  We will invest in it so that it can better serve those it belongs to.

(5.87) Those who lack pure compassion and wisdom
Should not actually give away their body
But, instead, devote it to accomplishing
The great purpose of this and future lives.

To actually give away our body in this context would refer to literally handing over our body to others, such as becoming their slave or giving our inner organs to others who might need them while we are still alive.  If we are sufficiently realized, this would not be a problem for us, but few of us are so advanced.  Besides, acting in this way would likely do more harm than good since it would bring the Dharma into disrepute.  Actually giving away our body could also refer to being willing to sacrifice our life for the sake of protecting others, such as a soldier who throws himself on the grenade to save those in his squad.  While few of us encounter such situations in our daily life, we can nonetheless deeply rejoice in the mind that is willing to do such things.

However, there are many practical ways we can give away our body.  For example, if we see an old lady struggling to carry her grocery bags, we can carry them for her.  This is offering our body to others.

Modern Bodhisattva’s Way of Life:  Virtuous negativity and giving everything

Shantideva now introduces the moral discipline of benefitting others – helping others in whatever way we can – as a discipline, a moral discipline.

(5.84) Buddha, the compassionate Far-Seeing One,
Allows Bodhisattvas to perform certain actions that are otherwise proscribed.
Understanding this well, I should always put effort
Into my practice of the Bodhisattva’s way of life.

A big part of the Bodhisattva’s way of life is to enter people’s lives just as our Spiritual Guide has entered our lives, and then with a pure intention, attempt to tame their minds.  We cannot hold back. We need to become more and more aware of how helpless people are – people need so much help.  We have to be willing to put ourselves out, to inconvenience ourselves if need be.  We have to give others whatever they need.  More, we need to become the person that other people need.

Sometimes we will make mistakes.  We should have a pure intention and try to learn from our mistakes.  We can’t hold back being afraid to make mistakes.  Sometimes people think it is better to do nothing than to make mistakes, but this is not as helpful to others.  We have to be willing to make mistakes, sometimes even big ones, in the name of helping others.  It is sometimes only by making mistakes that we can learn what is the right thing to do, and even if our actions are not perfect, they will often be better than doing nothing.  People are in a hopeless situation. We can’t just sit by and watch.

Our Spiritual Guide will help us to help others.  We bring him into our heart and then we just go for it, doing our best.  We can’t hold back, we have to give as much of ourselves as we can to others.  Our Spiritual Guide at our heart will help us avoid many mistakes.  For those we do make, we learn from them and then we request Dorje Shugden that he bless others’ minds so that even our mistakes become a cause of their enlightenment.

Sometimes, even, otherwise negative actions of body and speech can be virtuous actions.  The example is given in the scriptures of Buddha Shakyamuni in a previous life killing a sailor who was planning on killing all the others on the boat.  It is likewise sometimes appropriate to engage in what might otherwise be hurtful and divisive speech if doing so is what is required to preserve the pure Kadampa tradition in this world.  But when we engage in these otherwise negative actions, we must be very careful that our motivation for doing so is pure love and compassion for others.  Buddha was trying to protect the all the sailors, both the ones who would have been killed and the one who was intending on doing the killing.  Protesting for religious freedom protects those who are doing nothing wrong to practice freely as they choose and protects those who would persecute them from accumulating negative karma for themselves.

(85) I should share my food with animals,
People who are hungry, and practitioners,
And eat merely what I need.
Ordained people can give everything except their three robes.

We decide what we actually need in our life to be able to comfortably follow the Bodhisattva’s Way of Life, and then we give away everything else for the benefit of others.  Geshe-la says we need inner peace, but also we need good physical health, and for this we need reasonably comfortable physical conditions, such as food, etc. to support our practice.  But by and large, we should give everything else away.

Some people save their money to spend it on themselves.  Philanthropists earn money to be able to give it to others.  Parents work hard to provide for their families.  Bodhisattva’s give everything away.  They offer to all living beings all of their money and possessions, their body, their mind, their time, everything.  Ultimately we give everything away by using things and ourselves for the sake of others.   Sometimes we may retain possession of certain things that we manage well for the sake of others, but mentally we never forget that others have ownership.  We can spend money on ourselves to stay healthy, support our practice, develop our abilities to better serve, and so forth; but everything else we have we should use for the sake of others.

It is true, the highest cause we can give towards is the flourishing of the Dharma because only it can solve the problems of living beings.  Everything else can at most temporarily reduce people’s suffering.  But sometimes we can go too far with this and fail to live up to our worldly responsibilities.  If we have a family we are responsible for, our first responsibility is to our family.  If we give all of our money and time to our center, but as a result we neglect providing adequately for our families, then we will being the Dharma into disrepute because we will be acting in conventionally inappropriate ways.  But even if we are not giving everything to the Dharma, we are giving everything we have, holding nothing back for ourselves.  For myself, mentally I first offer my family to all the Buddhas, and then I provide for my family.  In this way, mentally my action of giving is both giving to the flourishing of the Dharma indirectly while providing for my family directly.

Modern Bodhisattva’s Way of Life:  Engage in every practice for the benefit of others

(5.82) I should perform all my Dharma activities
With skill, clear understanding, and strong faith,
So that others will increase their wisdom
And experience immeasurable benefit.

To engage in our Dharma activities with skill means to engage in them at the appropriate level.  For ourselves, this means not engaging in such easy practices that we are not forced to grow, but also not engaging in such advanced practices that we are not actually moving our heart.  For others, this means not doing nothing to try help them progress along the path, but also not forcing the Dharma upon them.  Our advice should engage others at the level they are at, not the level we are at.  Likewise, we should abandon any need whatsoever for others to take our advice to heart, instead we leave them completely free to do with it what they wish.

Performing our Dharma activities with clear understanding means we are very clear on what are the objects to be abandoned and what are the objects to be attained.  Attachment and aversion think something external needs to change.  Wisdom understands the difference between our outer and inner problem, and uses appropriate external methods to solve external problems and internal methods to solve internal problems.

Working for others with faith means to practice with confidence knowing our methods will work, even if we don’t yet understand exactly how things work.  For example, we are taught that anger always makes things worse and patience always makes things better.  Sometimes it seems to us the opposite is true.  But because we have faith, we nonetheless let go of our anger and learn to accept.  The inner workings of karma are a deeply hidden phenomena, but that doesn’t make them any less true.  With faith, we are able to abandon non-virtue and instead practice virtue.  Cherishing others is the root of all happiness and self-cherishing is the root of all suffering.  But every habit within our mind moves in the opposite direction.  Faith gives us the power to overcome these bad habits.

The purpose of all of our actions should be to help others increase their wisdom.  Giving people good advice helps them once, helping people develop their own wisdom helps them forever.  All the suffering of all living beings comes from mistaken actions.  Only wisdom reveals the unmistaken path.  Generally speaking, if we give people wisdom it will remain intellectual for them; but when they experience its truth for themselves, they own that wisdom as their own.  Therefore, our goal should always be to help people gain person experience of the truth of Dharma by helping them act upon their wisdom.

(5.83) Although in general the perfections of giving and so forth
Are progressively higher than those that precede them,
I should not forsake great virtues for the sake of small ones.
Principally, I should consider the benefit to others.

The meaning here is each virtuous action can be engaged in at multiple levels in dependence upon our motivation.  Giving flowers, for example, can be done for selfish purposes, to gain a higher rebirth, to escape from samsara or to become a Buddha.  We need to practice where we are at.  If we try practice at a level that exceeds where our heart is, our practice will largely be intellectual.  If we practice at too low of a level, then we won’t actually be moving our mind.  We should honestly admit to ourselves where our mind is really at, and then gently push things a little further.  It does no good to pretend we are better than we actually are, and it is self-defeating to not try do better because it is not “natural.”  Sometimes people mistakenly think “if it is forced, it is wrong.”  What is natural is simply what is familiar.  All Dharma practice is about changing our habits, so it is necessarily “forced.”  But forced does not mean “fake.”  It means we know right from wrong, and we try do right even though our natural tendency is to do wrong.

In Meaningful to Behold, Geshe-la says taking all things into consideration we should try to determine which course of action is most beneficial – what will ultimately be most beneficial for others.  We need to consider both the long-term effects and short-term effects.  When we don’t know, we must look to our spiritual guide, also to other teachers to see how they do things.  Above all, we should pray for the wisdom to know what is the most beneficial thing to do.